<std> Citation to a Standard

Contains identification information for the standard being cited, wherever in the document the standard is cited, for example, in a normative reference list, in a bibliography, in the narrative text, or in a section title. Within a reference list,the <std> element is one of the three legal types of citations, serving as a standard-specific alternative to the <mixed-citation> and <element-citation> elements.


Best Practice

Inside a reference list or bibliography, standards should always be cited using <std> directly within the <ref> element, that is, used at the same level the <mixed-citation> and <element-citation> elements. The two other citation types are used to cite books, journal articles, conferences, databases, or any other source that is not a standard.
For Best Practice, a deep link to another standard (in which a figure, table, or similar internal structure from the other standard is the target of the link) should be tagged using the element <std> rather than by using <std-ref>.
Differences in the <std> element between NISO STS and JATS
Citing standards is of greater importance and frequency in the world of NISO STS than it is in the world of journal articles, so JATS and NISO STS have taken different approaches to the <std> element:
  • Where Used: In NISO STS, a <std> is a legitimate type of citation, peer to the elements <mixed-citation> and <element-citation> within <ref>. In JATS, the <std> can only be found inside the elements <mixed-citation> and <element-citation>. Using the <std> element inside a citation is retained in NISO STS only for purposes of backwards compatibility with ISO STS, and such use is deprecated.
  • Title of the Standard: Inside a NISO STS <std> element, the title of the standard being cited is tagged with a <title> element. Inside a JATS-tagged citation, the title of the standard being cited is tagged as a <source>. JATS references to standards most often resemble those to books.
  • Content of the Element: Which elements may be used inside <std> is also different between NISO STS and JATS. Inside a NISO STS <std> element, the standards-specific elements <std-id>, <std-id-group>, and <std-ref> may all be used.

Standard Status Type (@type)

The @type attribute describes publishing type of the standard (for example, “dated”, “undated”, or “multipart”). @type has as its values a fixed list of standard types. To record a standard type that is not one of the listed types, you can use @custom-type to describe the actual type. Set the value of @type to “custom” and also use @custom-type to name type you require.
Related Elements
Types of Citations: There are three types of citations described by this Tag Set:
  • <std> is used to cite standards. It contains textual content (with all interior punctuation and spacing preserved and the components of the citation given in any order) and may also include standards-specific elements such as <title> for the title of the standard being cited, <std-id-group>, and <std-ref> as well as interior links such as footnotes and cross-references.
  • <mixed-citation> is used for citing books, journal articles, etc. It contains textual content (with all interior punctuation and spacing preserved and the components of the citation given in any order) and may include all the references elements first described for JATS.
  • <element-citation> is used for citing books, journal articles, etc. It contains element-only content made up of all the references elements first described for JATS in any order, with no interior punctuation or spacing.
Citing versus Interior Pointing: This <std> element contains the bibliographic description of a standard, frequently as part of a reference list. A pointer to that reference list item uses the <xref> element. These two elements are sometimes confused because in common language both may be called “citations”.

Base Attributes

Linking Attributes

xlink:type (fixed value = simple)


xmlns:xlink (fixed value = http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink)
Models and Context
May be contained in
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  std          (#PCDATA %std-elements;)*                    >
Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | ext-link | fn | std-id | std-id-group | std-ref | title | data-title | uri | xref | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | num | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | ruby | inline-graphic | private-char | inline-code | inline-media | named-content | styled-content | sub | sup)*

Tagged Samples
Standard named in “Normative references” section
 <std><std-ref type="undated">ISO/IEC&#x00A0;17025</std-ref>, 
  <title>General requirements for the competence of testing 
   and calibration laboratories</title></std>
 <std><std-ref type="dated">ISO&#x00A0;15223&#x2011;1:2012</std-ref>, 
  <title>Medical devices&#x00A0;&#x2014; Symbols to be used 
   with medical device labels, labelling and information 
   to be supplied&#x00A0;&#x2014; Part&#x00A0;1: General 
Standard named in “Bibliographic references” section
<ref content-type="standard" id="ref3">
 <std><std-ref type="undated">EN&#x00A0;1006</std-ref>, 
  <title>Advanced technical ceramics&#x00A0;&#x2014;Monolithic 
   ceramics&#x00A0;&#x2014; Guidance on the selection of test 
   pieces for the evaluation of properties</title></std>
<ref content-type="standard" id="ref9">
 <std><std-ref type="undated">ISO&#x00A0;13399 (all parts)</std-ref>, 
  <title>Cutting tool data representation and exchange</title></std>
Standard named in text
 <p>Guidance on this issue may be found in 
  <std><std-ref type="short">EN&#x00A0;1006</std-ref></std> (see 
  Bibliography [<xref rid="bib-3">3</xref>]).</p>
<p>... complying with 
 <std><std-ref type="dated">ISO&#x00A0;5356&#x2011;1</std-ref></std>.</p>