<ali:license_ref> License Reference (NISO ALI)

A URI that is a pointer to a public license or waiver. If the element has content, it must be a URI.


This element is defined in NISO Access License and Indicators (ALI) NISO RP-22-2015.

Date Attributes

A given document may contain more than one <ali:license_ref>, with a @start_date attribute used to differentiate.
Related Elements
Use of this element is independent of both the NISO ALI <ali:free_to_read> and the <license> elements.
Permissions and Licensing Elements: NISO STS has several elements that deal with the usage, permissions, and licensing. Two of these elements(<ali:free_to_read> and <ali:license_ref>) are provided for users of the NISO Access License and Indicators (ALI) NISO RP-22-2015 specification. The other element (<license>) is for more general or supplementary license information.
  • <ali:free_to_read> — This NISO ALI element is a simple flag whose presence indicates that the document is free to be read, without making statements about any additional reuse rights or restrictions. Date attributes can specify when the document is free to be read.
  • <ali:license_ref> — This NISO ALI element points to a public license or waiver. By “public”, NISO ALI means that the offer is generally and not privately offered. Such a license may be either human or machine-readable text that explains the terms of use or reuse for the content.
  • <license> — An element from JATS whose content describes a set of conditions under which the content may be used, accessed, and distributed. This element was provided to hold the license text. The 2015 NISO ALI recommendation is to store in the XML document a URI that points to the license instead of the full license text. For organizations who adopt the NISO ALI recommendation, the <license> element can be used to hold a short representation of the license, such as a sentence or two, which is used for display. Alternatively, an organization can choose not to implement NISO ALI and to put the text of the license in <license>.
    The <license> element takes the @xlink:href attribute to point to the text of the license. However, the new NISO ALI element <ali:license_ref> performs the same pointing function. NISO STS follows JATS best practice in omitting the @xlink:href attribute from <license> if a NISO ALI <ali:license_ref> is used.

Base Attributes


xmlns:ali (fixed value = http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/)
Models and Context
May be contained in
Text, numbers, or special characters
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  ali:license_ref  
                        %license-ref-model;                          >
Expanded Content Model


Tagged Sample

CC BY-NC license

 <ali:free_to_read start_date="2016-01-01"/>
  <ali:license_ref start_date="2016-01-01"
  <license-p>For noncommercial purposes only, this publication may be 
   reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior 
   permission in writing from the publisher, provided it is reproduced 
   accurately, the source of the material is identified, and you do not 
   in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</license-p>