<etal> Et Al. (in a citation)

Indicator of the presence of unnamed contributors. Typically indicated in print with the text “et al.” or with an ellipsis.


Many XML tag sets model this as an EMPTY element, typically used to generate the text “et al.” from a stylesheet. However, a few tag sets expect content for this element, with such text as “Associates, coworkers, and colleagues”. The NISO STS model allows both forms.

Base Attributes

Models and Context
May be contained in
Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >
Expanded Content Model


Tagged Sample

In a citation

 <mixed-citation publication-type="paper"
   <etal>et al.</etal></person-group> 
  <article-title>From ERIC source documents to abstracts:  
   A problem in readability</article-title> Presented at the 
  <conf-name>Rocky Mountain Education Research 
   Association</conf-name>, <conf-loc>Tucson, AZ</conf-loc>,
  <conf-date iso-8601-date="1973-11-29">November 29, 1973</conf-date>.