<mixed-citation> Mixed Citation

Bibliographic description of a work. Includes a combination of bibliographic reference elements and untagged text. Spacing and punctuation are preserved.


In this Tag Set, citations are allowed to float freely within the text of a standard, for example, within a paragraph or title, or they may be listed in a reference list.

Information Typing Best Practice

The @publication-type attribute should normally be used to distinguish between citations for journal articles, books, reviews, personal communications, and so on.
Related Elements
Types of Citations: There are three types of citations described by this Tag Set:
  • <std> is used to cite standards. It contains textual content (with all interior punctuation and spacing preserved and the components of the citation given in any order) and may also include standards-specific elements such as <title> for the title of the standard being cited, <std-id-group>, and <std-ref> as well as interior links such as footnotes and cross-references.
  • <mixed-citation> is used for citing books, journal articles, etc. It contains textual content (with all interior punctuation and spacing preserved and the components of the citation given in any order) and may include all the references elements first described for JATS.
  • <element-citation> is used for citing books, journal articles, etc. It contains element-only content made up of all the references elements first described for JATS in any order, with no interior punctuation or spacing.
Citing versus Interior Pointing: This <mixed-citation> element contains the bibliographic description of a work; the pointer to that cited description uses the <xref> element. These two elements are sometimes confused because in common language both may be called “citations”.

Base Attributes

Linking Attributes

xlink:type (fixed value = simple)


xmlns:xlink (fixed value = http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink)
Models and Context
May be contained in
Any combination of:
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  mixed-citation
                        (#PCDATA | %citation-elements;)*             >
Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | break | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | num | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | inline-media | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | label | abbrev | index-term | index-term-range-end | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | annotation | article-title | chapter-title | collab | collab-alternatives | comment | conf-acronym | conf-date | conf-loc | conf-name | conf-sponsor | data-title | date | date-in-citation | day | edition | email | elocation-id | etal | ext-link | fpage | gov | institution | institution-wrap | isbn | issn | issn-l | issue | issue-id | issue-part | issue-title | lpage | month | name | name-alternatives | object-id | page-range | part-title | patent | person-group | pub-id | publisher-loc | publisher-name | role | season | series | size | source | std | string-date | string-name | supplement | trans-source | trans-title | uri | version | volume | volume-id | volume-series | year | fn | target | tbx:entailedTerm | xref | sub | sup)*

Tagged Samples
Bibliographic reference for book
<ref id="bibr40">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book"
  ><collab>World Health Organization</collab>, <collab>World 
  Bank</collab>. (<year iso-8601-date="2011">2011</year>), 
  <source>World Report on Disability</source>, 
  <publisher-loc>Geneva</publisher-loc>, available at: 
Bibliographic reference for journal
 <ref id="ref_4">
  <mixed-citation publication-type="journal"
   <source>Dtsch. Lebensmitt. Rundsch</source>. 
   <year iso-8601-date="1974">1974</year>, 
   <volume>70</volume> p. <fpage>57</fpage></mixed-citation>
Bibliographic reference for conference paper
 <mixed-citation publication-type="paper"
   <etal>et al.</etal></person-group> 
  <article-title>From ERIC source documents to abstracts:  
   A problem in readability</article-title> Presented at the 
  <conf-name>Rocky Mountain Education Research 
   Association</conf-name>, <conf-loc>Tucson, AZ</conf-loc>,
  <conf-date iso-8601-date="1973-11-29">November 29, 1973</conf-date>. 
Bibliographic reference for report
 <mixed-citation publication-type="report"
  <source>NISO/CLIR/RLG Technical Metadata for 
   Images Workshop, April 18-19, 1999</source> [Report]. 
  <publisher-loc>Bethesda, MD</publisher-loc>: 
  <publisher-name>National Information Standards 
  c<date-in-citation content-type="copyright" 
As cited in text
<p>... This method for string collation was described 
with tables in 
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book"
  ><source>R&egrave;gles du classement alphab&eacute;tique 
   en langue fran&ccedil;aise et proc&eacute;dure 
   informatis&eacute;e pour le tri</source>, 
  <collab>Minist&egrave;re des Communications du 
   Qu&eacute;bec</collab>, <year iso-8601-date="1988-08-19"
  >1988</year>-<month>08</month>-<day>19</day>, ISBN 
A public-domain subkey reduction technique is described 
(with several examples) in 
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book"
  ><source>Technique de r&eacute;duction &mdash; Tris 
   informatiques &agrave; quatre cl&eacute;s</source>, 
  <collab>Minist&egrave;re des Communications du 
  <year iso-8601-date="1989-06">1989</year>-<month>06</month>, 
  ISBN <isbn>2-550-19965-0</isbn></mixed-citation>. 
See also ...</p>