Citation to a Standard
Contains identification information for the standard being cited, wherever in the document the standard is cited, for example, in a normative reference list, in a bibliography, in the narrative text, or in a section title. Within a reference list,the <std> element is one of the three legal types of citations, serving as a standard-specific alternative to the <mixed-citation> and <element-citation> elements.
Best Practice: Inside a reference list or bibliography, standards should always be cited using <std> directly within the <ref> element, that is, used at the same level the <mixed-citation> and <element-citation> elements. The two other citation types are used to cite books, journal articles, conferences, databases, or any other source that is not a standard.
For Best Practice, a deep link to another standard (in which a figure, table, or similar internal structure from the other standard is the target of the link) should be tagged using the element <std> rather than by using <std-ref>.
Differences in the <std> element between NISO STS and JATS: Citing standards is of greater importance and frequency in the world of NISO STS than it is in the world of journal articles, so JATS and NISO STS have taken different approaches to the <std> element:
- Where Used: In NISO STS, a <std> is a legitimate type of citation, peer to the elements <mixed-citation> and <element-citation> within <ref>. In JATS, the <std> can only be found inside the elements <mixed-citation> and <element-citation>. Using the <std> element inside a citation is retained in NISO STS only for purposes of backwards compatibility with ISO STS, and such use is deprecated.
- Title of the Standard: Inside a NISO STS <std> element, the title of the standard being cited is tagged with a <title> element. Inside a JATS-tagged citation, the title of the standard being cited is tagged as a <source>. JATS references to standards most often resemble those to books.
- Content of the Element: Which elements may be used inside <std> is also different between NISO STS and JATS. Inside a NISO STS <std> element, the standards-specific elements <std-id>, <std-id-group>, and <std-ref> may all be used.
Any combination of:
- Text, numbers, or special characters
- <ext-link> External Link
- <fn> Footnote
- <std-id> Standard ID
- <std-id-group> Standard ID Group
- <std-ref> Standard Reference Designation
- <title> Title
- <uri> Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
- <xref> X(cross) Reference
- Emphasis Elements
- Inline Display Elements
- <named-content> Named Special (Subject) Content
- <styled-content> Styled Special (Subject) Content
- Baseline Change Elements
This element may be contained in:
<attrib>, <bold>, <code>, <compl>, <element-citation>, <fixed-case>, <full>, <intro>, <italic>, <license-p>, <main>, <mixed-citation>, <monospace>, <overline>, <p>, <preformat>, <ref>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <strike>, <sub>, <subtitle>, <sup>, <td>, <th>, <title>, <underline>
A standard named in a “Normative references” section:
... <ref> <std><std-ref type="undated">ISO/IEC 17025</std-ref>, <title>General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories</title></std> </ref> ... <ref> <std><std-ref type="dated">ISO 15223‑1:2012</std-ref>, <title>Medical devices — Symbols to be used with medical device labels, labelling and information to be supplied — Part 1: General requirements</title></std> </ref> ...
A standard named in a “Bibliographic references” section:
... <ref content-type="standard" id="ref3"> <label></label> <std><std-ref type="undated">EN 1006</std-ref>, <title>Advanced technical ceramics —Monolithic ceramics — Guidance on the selection of test pieces for the evaluation of properties</title></std> </ref> ... <ref content-type="standard" id="ref9"> <label></label> <std><std-ref type="undated">ISO 13399 (all parts)</std-ref>, <title>Cutting tool data representation and exchange</title></std> </ref> ...
A standard named in text:
... <non-normative-note> <label>NOTE</label> <p>Guidance on this issue may be found in <std><std-ref type="short">EN 1006</std-ref></std> (see Bibliography [<xref rid="bib-3">3</xref>]).</p> </non-normative-note> <p>... complying with <std><std-ref type="dated">ISO 5356‑1</std-ref></std>.</p> ...