<subject> Subject Name
Name of one overarching category, broad classification, topic, or theme used to describe a standards document, as a higher-level descriptor of its content.
In JATS (the specification on which NISO STS was based), subjects are used to organize articles in a Table of Contents or similar. In standards documents, subjects have been used to organize standards into series or provide category classing. The source of the subjects can be a classification scheme, such as a taxonomy (ISO STD 25964:-1:ed-1:2011 https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:25964:-1:ed-1:v1:en:term:2.6).
Language in Subjects
Subject elements are contained in <subj-group> elements. There may be several <subj-group>s, each of which can be identified separately by language, vocabulary, or taxonomy source. None of the individual subject elements (<subject> and <compound-subject>) take the @xml:lang attribute; that is reserved for the group level (<subj-group>). This means that if there are keywords in several languages they should be in different <kwd-group>s.
For controlled vocabularies, two attributes can be used to link a subject term to its source:
- @vocab-term — This attribute holds the canonical form of the subject term as expressed in the vocabulary named on the <subj-group> element. The content of the subject element (<subject> or <compound-subject>) might not be exactly the same as the canonical form, as the <subject> content might be a user-specific variant.
- @vocab-term-identifier — This attribute holds a unique identifier and possible pointer to the specific subject term in the named vocabulary. While this is typically a URI or DOI reference, the @vocab-term-identifier could be an item number or other system-specific identifier.
Models and Context
May be contained in
Any combination of:
- Text, numbers, or special characters
- Emphasis Elements
- <alternatives> Alternatives For Processing
- Inline Display Elements
- <chem-struct> Chemical Structure (Display)
- <inline-formula> Formula, Inline
- <named-content> Named Special (Subject) Content
- <styled-content> Styled Special (Subject) Content
- Baseline Change Elements
Subjects from SDO-specific taxonomy showing vocabulary attributes
... <subj-group id="SG1.1" originator="ASME" vocab="ASME-Taxonomy" xml:lang="en" subj-group-type="Industries" vocab-identifier="http:/www.asme.org/ASME-Taxonomy/Industries/"> <subject id="SG1.1-1" vocab-term-identifier="http:/www.asme.org/ASME-Taxonomy/Industries/fossil-power" >Fossil Power</subject> <subject id="SG1.1-2" vocab-term-identifier="http:/www.asme.org/ASME-Taxonomy/Industries/power-plants" >Power Plants</subject> </subj-group> <subj-group id="SG1.2" originator="ASME" vocab="ASME-Taxonomy" xml:lang="en" subj-group-type="Materials-Product-Form" vocab-identifier="http:/www.asme.org/ASME-Taxonomy/Materials-Product-Form/"> <subject id="SG1.2-1" vocab-term-identifier="http:/www.asme.org/ASME-Taxonomy/Materials-Product-Form/piping" >Piping</subject> <subject id="SG1.2-2" vocab-term-identifier="http:/www.asme.org/ASME-Taxonomy/Materials-Product-Form/pressure-vessels" >Pressure Vessels</subject> </subj-group> ...
Subject from Dewey Decimal showing canonical term in @vocab-term attribute and its translation in subject content (Note “Engineering of railroads, roads” is DDC term, not free text.)
... <subj-group id="DDC-ex1" vocab="DDC" vocab-identifier="DDC23" xml:lang="en"> <subject id="DCC-625" vocab-term="Engineering of railroads, roads" vocab-term-identifier="http://www.oclc.org/en/dewey/features/summaries.html#thou"> Ingénierie des chemins de fer, routes</subject> </subj-group> ...