Tagging Terms and Definitions
NISO STS provides two very different structures for tagging the terms and definitions inside a Term Section (<term-sec>). One way is to tag terms using TBX (a specifically namespaced vocabulary based on ISO 30042; TermBase eXchange ). The second way is to use <term-display>, a simpler but less powerful alternative.
- TBX: TBX is a concept-oriented encoding of terminological data. The TBX element <tbx:termEntry> models a term using the TBX-namespaced vocabulary and ontology for terms, which can record information about any number of synonymous terms in multiple languages. See ISO 30042; TermBase eXchange (TBX).
- Term Display: The NISO STS element <term-display> uses natural language to describe terms, and may OR MAY NOT incorporate semantic term elements such as definition (<def>) or pronunciation (<pronunciation>). Semantic tagging is encouraged but not enforced by the model.
NISO STS <term-display>
The term display element provides a looser description of a term and its definition than TBX-tagging allows (potentially containing just text). The content of the <term-display> element was designed to:
- Enable tagging term and definition content in the sequence in which that content appears in the standards document;
- Enable, but not require, tagging of the principle semantic components of terms (such as the term itself, its definition, related-terms, part of speech, pronunciation, etc.);
- Enable tagging that will make it possible to extract terms and definitions for use in glossaries containing the terms and definitions from many standards; and
- Make tagging existing terms and definitions easier (in some senses) than using the more strictly structured TBX tagging.
While the element <term-display> may contain only text, it may also contain semantic markup. Use of these semantic elements is encouraged, as enables rich retrieval and reuse as well as display in the narrative text.
The <term> element contains the term being described or defined.
The <def> element contains the definition for the term being described.
Part of Speech
A <part-of-speech> element contains one part-of-speech associated with this usage of the term.
A <pronunciation> element contains one way to pronounce the given term. Pronunciation elements typically have very simple content:
<pronunciation>trænskrɪpʃən</pronunciation> <pronunciation>'äb-`ərs</pronunciation> <pronunciation>//dıˈstɜ:bəns/</pronunciation>
This elements takes the XLink attributes, so a pronunciation element can link to a sound file that pronounces the term.
Source of the Term
The <term-source> element names the original source of the term being described.
For usage information and contents of TBX elements, see the documentation for TBX in ISO 30042; TermBase eXchange (TBX); the NISO STS TBX compatible vocabulary is derived from ISO 30042: https://www.iso.org/standard/45797.html
Using both TBX and <term-display>
While <term-display> will mostly be used by organizations that choose not to employ TBX tagging, even TBX-coding standards organizations may use <term-display> on occasion. An organization can choose to use one or the other; or the two encodings may appear side-by-side as equivalents. Processes that consume NISO STS documents should be prepared to see either or both forms of a term entry and to use one or the other (or both) as appropriate.
Thus, a term in a term section may be tagged twice, once using a <tbx:termEntry> element and once using a <term-display> element. The element <term-display> provides a more appearance-oriented encoding of terminological data that may be used when, for example:
- It is difficult to generate the desired formatted display from a particular TBX entry, or
- For document conversion when it is difficult to create a useful TBX term entry from a source document.
Documenting the TBX Vocabulary
The NISO STS TBX vocabulary is based on ISO STS TBX, which is documented by ISO at: https://www.iso.org/schema/isosts/v1.1/doc/tbx/index.html
Multiple Paragraphs Inside Definitions and Notes
Compromises for NISO STS 1.0
During development of NISO STS 1.0, there were multiple requests to add paragraphs (<p>) to TBX definitions and notes. This request was denied because of the decision that NISO STS be backwards-compatible with ISO STS. We could see no backwards-compatible way to turn definitions and notes (which are currently text-only) into text or paragraph elements that would not lead to the possibility of very awkward, hard-to-correct data.
While there is a clear need to divide definitions and notes into paragraphs, such additions to the TBX models will not be made until a future version of NISO STS, when backwards-incompatible changes to ISO STS can be introduced. At that time, the NISO STS Technical Working Group may suggest changing the models of both <tbx:definition> and <tbx:note> to one or more paragraphs.
Current Best Practice Workaround
Current standards documents sometimes need to tag multiple paragraphs within TBX definitions and notes. An optimal way to do this, such as using a paragraph element, will not be available in version 1 of NISO STS.
The workaround will accomplish the formatting objective of a paragraph element, but not the semantic one. Current Best Practice, until this issue can be resolved, is to use two <break> elements to make paragraph distinctions.
Some current ISO STS users are using return characters to accomplish a paragraph-look now. NISO STS deprecates this practice and encourages the use of double <break> elements for this purpose, until a proper paragraph element can be added to <tbx:definition> and <tbx:note>.